## Probalign

Probalign is a sequence alignment tool that calculates a maximum expected accuracy alignment using partition function posterior probabilities. Base pair probabilities are estimated using an estimate similar to Boltzmann distribution. The partition function is calculated using a dynamic programming approach.

The following describes the algorithm used by probalign to determine the base pair probabilities.

To score an alignment of two sequences two things are needed:

The score



S

(

a

)

{\displaystyle S(a)}

of an alignment a is defined as:



S

(

a

)

=

x

i

y

j

a

σ

(

x

i

,

y

j

)

+

gap cost

{\displaystyle S(a)=\sum _{x_{i}-y_{j}\in a}\sigma (x_{i},y_{j})+{\text{gap cost}}}

Now the boltzmann weighted score of an alignment a is:



e

S

(

a

)

T

=

e

x

i

y

j

a

σ

(

x

i

,

y

j

)

+

gap cost

T

=

(

x

i

y

i

a

e

x

i

y

j

a

σ

(

x

i

,

y

j

)

T

)

e

g

a

p

c

o

s

t

T

{\displaystyle e^{\frac {S(a)}{T}}=e^{\frac {\sum _{x_{i}-y_{j}\in a}\sigma (x_{i},y_{j})+{\text{gap cost}}}{T}}=\left(\prod _{x_{i}-y_{i}\in a}e^{\frac {\sum _{x_{i}-y_{j}\in a}\sigma (x_{i},y_{j})}{T}}\right)\cdot e^{\frac {gapcost}{T}}}

Where



T

{\displaystyle T}

is a scaling factor.

The probability of an alignment assuming boltzmann distribution is given by



P

r

[

a

|

x

,

y

]

=

e

S

(

a

)

T

Z

{\displaystyle Pr[a|x,y]={\frac {e^{\frac {S(a)}{T}}}{Z}}}

Where



Z

{\displaystyle Z}

is the partition function, i.e. the sum of the boltzmann weights of all alignments.

Let



Z

i

,

j

{\displaystyle Z_{i,j}}

denote the partition function of the prefixes



x

0

,

x

1

,

.

.

.

,

x

i

{\displaystyle x_{0},x_{1},…,x_{i}}

and



y

0

,

y

1

,

.

.

.

,

y

j

{\displaystyle y_{0},y_{1},…,y_{j}}

. Three different cases are considered:

Then we have:



Z

i

,

j

=

Z

i

,

j

M

+

Z

i

,

j

D

+

Z

i

,

j

I

{\displaystyle Z_{i,j}=Z_{i,j}^{M}+Z_{i,j}^{D}+Z_{i,j}^{I}}

The matrixes are initialized as follows:

The partition function for the alignments of two sequences



x

{\displaystyle x}

and



y

{\displaystyle y}

is given by



Z

|

x

|

,

|

y

|

{\displaystyle Z_{|x|,|y|}}

, which can be recursively computed:

Finally the probability that positions



x

i

{\displaystyle x_{i}}

and



y

j

{\displaystyle y_{j}}

form a base pair is given by:



P

(

x

i

y

j

|

x

,

y

)

=

Z

i

1

,

j

1

e

σ

(

x

i

,

y

j

)

T

Z

i

,

j

Z

|

x

|

,

|

y

|

{\displaystyle P(x_{i}-y_{j}|x,y)={\frac {Z_{i-1,j-1}\cdot e^{\frac {\sigma (x_{i},y_{j})}{T}}\cdot Z’_{i‘,j‘}}{Z_{|x|,|y|}}}}



Z

,

i

,

j

{\displaystyle Z‘,i‘,j‘}

are the respective values for the recalculated



Z

{\displaystyle Z}

with inversed base pair strings.

## re:publica

re:publica is a conference in Europe that deals with the Web 2.0, especially blogs, social media and information society. It annually takes place in Berlin. During three days talks and workshops about various topics are held, ranging from media and culture over politics and technology to entertainment. All talks and discussions are streamed directly to the internet.

The conference is organized by the operators of the German blogs Spreeblick and netzpolitik.org and is funded by Medienboard Berlin-Brandenburg and Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Re:publica stems from res publica which translates to „public matter“.

The first re:publica with the slogan „Leben im Netz“ – Life in the internet – took place from 11 to 13 April 2007 and attracted about 700 visitors. Over the years the event grew continually, with 5,000 international visitors and about 350 speakers in 2013. Each year, different main focusses were set, for example data protection in 2008 and intellectual property rights and political aspects of internet usage in 2009.

In 2011, Daniel Domscheit-Berg introduced the project OpenLeaks as a planned politically neutral alternative to WikiLeaks durcing the conference.

A highlight in 2012 was a talk with the European Commissioner for Digital Agenda Neelie Kroes who demanded to stop ACTA and SOPA.

The eighth re:publica, titled INTO THE WILD, took place in May 2014. The conference had 350 sessions on 18 stages, 500 volunteers and 6,000 people overall, breaking its attendance record.

The ninth re:publica took place from May 5, 2015 to May 7, 2015 with over 7000 people attending and 450 speakers, was the biggest re:publica ever.

Marion Meade (born January 7, 1934) is an American biographer and novelist. She is best known for her portraits of literary figures and iconic filmmakers.

Born in Pittsburgh, the eldest of three children, Meade grew up in an academic environment. Her father, Surain Singh Sidhu, a Sikh immigrant from Amritsar, India, taught physics at the University of Pittsburgh. Her mother Mary, a Hungarian-American, was a homemaker whose hobbies included writing song lyrics and raising orchids. Meade first became interested in journalism while attending Bethel Township High School where she edited the school paper and worked summers on a local newspaper.

Meade studied journalism at Northwestern University, graduating in 1955. The following year she moved to New York, earned a master’s degree from the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, and found her first reporting job as an assistant to Earl Wilson, the popular Broadway columnist for the New York Post. She subsequently worked for publications in New York and Washington before becoming a freelancer and publishing articles in the New York Times, The Nation, The New Republic and McCall’s.

Meade’s first book, Bitching, published in 1973, stemmed from her involvement in the women’s liberation movement of the 1960s. Following her participation in feminist consciousness-raising groups, she asked women of various ages how they secretly regarded the men in their lives. The result was a less than favorable review of the opposite sex.

Following Bitching, Meade wrote a trilogy of feminist-themed works set in medieval France. Eleanor of Aquitaine chronicles the life of the powerful 12th-century queen. Stealing Heaven: The Love Story of Heloise and Abelard retells one of the most famous love stories of European history (a film adaptation of the novel was released in 1988).[citation needed] A second novel, Sybille, concerns the death of literature during the Albigensian Crusade and a 13th-century troubadour grappling with her verse as her homeland collapses.

In 1988, Meade published the biography Dorothy Parker: What Fresh Hell Is This?, which remains an authoritative source of the author’s life and work. New interest in Parker led to the making of the 1994 film Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle, starring Jennifer Jason Leigh. Meade further explored Parker in her 2004 book Bobbed Hair and Bathtub Gin: Writers Running Wild in the Twenties. The work covered three other notable female writers of the Jazz Age—Edna St. Vincent Millay, Zelda Fitzgerald, and Edna Ferber. Both the San Francisco Chronicle and The Washington Post named it among the best books of the year., Kirkus Reviews called it „largely apocryphal and hardly scholarly, but a lot of fun.“ In 2006 Meade edited Parker’s collected works, The Portable Dorothy Parker, updating the 60-year-old anthology with fresh material and many personal letters. Penguin Books commissioned a jacket from the well known illustrator Seth.

Her 1995 HarperCollins book Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase recorded the journey of Keaton from a Kansas medicine show to vaudeville headliner to cinematic pioneer. Her 2000 biography The Unruly Life of Woody Allen was, The New York Times said, „not a vile book“ and „not irresponsible“ but did adhere to the standard „consensus of opinion on its subject, depicting him as self-involved, misogynist, egotistical, inconsiderate, isolated and stagnant.“

Of her most recent book, Lonelyhearts: The Screwball World of Nathanael West and Eileen McKenney, Laura Miller, of Salon.com wrote that Meade’s readings of Nathanael West’s works were „a bit crude.“ Jonathan Yardley in The Washington Post considered it a „rather peculiar joint biography“ and noted, „Precisely what inspired Marion Meade to write about them [West and McKenney] is a mystery,“ noting that „West already has been the subject of a rather massive biography by Jay Martin, and the vultures of academe have picked his carcass to pieces. Presumably the device that Meade fastened upon to distinguish her book from the others was to bring McKenney into the story as, in effect, an equal partner. But West remains the dominant figure for the obvious reasons: He accomplished more, he had more famous and interesting friends, he had a longer life.“

In The New York Times, Dwight Garner criticized the book’s „grating prose“ and „half-baked analogies.“ He also wrote:

„The bad news about Lonelyhearts is that Ms. Meade’s own unsubtle voice will make you wince on almost every page. To hear her tell this story is like listening to someone play Aaron Copland on a kazoo…. The book’s tone—I kept waiting for Ms. Meade, like a gum-snapping waitress in a diner, to start calling the reader ‚Hon’—isn’t improved by her insistence on referring to people by their nicknames. . . . Worse by far are Ms. Meade’s dismal readings of West’s novels. She has no feeling for his work and compares not one but two of his fictions to Monty Python sketches.“

By contrast, Jessa Crispin of National Public radio thought that Meade handled the topic in „a manner befitting her subject, with brevity and humor“

Meade lives in New York City. She has one child, Alison Sprague, and two granddaughters, Ashley Elizabeth Sprague and Katharine Rose Sprague.

Meade stated in a 2006 interview:

Biography was traditionally written by people who had lots of money and didn’t have to do anything. Or—when I first started out—by academics. Most of these people had very strict rules for what they thought was appropriate for a biography. They thought you had to be very circumspect. You couldn’t really pry into a subject’s life, which to me sounds insane, because that is what I do: pry into people’s lives. So I am perfect for what biography has become today because there is nothing I wouldn’t investigate. That is the way biography has changed in the last 20 years. It was a kind of white glove type of writing, now it’s anything goes.

Biographies

Novels

Narrative nonfiction

Editor/forewords

Selected articles

Films and documentaries

11 Who’s Who of American Women 2014

12 Who’s Who in America 2014

## Goran Pandev

Goran Pandev (in macedone Горан Пандев, ˈgɔran ˈpandɛf; Strumica, 27 luglio 1983) è un calciatore macedone, attaccante del Genoa e della nazionale macedone.

Nel 2013 detiene il record di marcature con 26 gol per la Nazionale macedone, con la quale ha disputato 75 incontri, raggiungendo il terzo posto nella classifica di presenze. Nella sua carriera agonistica, Pandev ha militato in Italia, dove ha vestito diverse maglie, tra cui quella dell’Ancona, della Lazio, dell’Inter del Napoli e del Genoa. In Italia ha conquistato dieci trofei: uno scudetto, cinque Coppe Italia (di cui 4 consecutive), due Supercoppe italiane, una Champions League e una Coppa del mondo per club FIFA.

Detiene il record del maggior numero di vittorie per il premio calciatore macedone dell’anno (in campionati stranieri), titolo che gli è stato assegnato nel 2004, nel 2006, nel 2007, nel 2008 e nel 2010.

È considerato il miglior giocatore macedone della storia del calcio.

Si è sposato con Nadica, dalla quale ha avuto un figlio.

Mancino naturale, dotato di buon dribbling e ottima tecnica, vede bene la porta nonostante agisca da seconda punta o da trequartista. È un attaccante che predilige farsi servire in area di rigore, dove può sfruttare le sue doti di tempismo e opportunismo. È inoltre molto abile nel mandare i suoi compagni a rete.

La carriera professionistica di Pandev comincia a 16 anni, quando era già titolare della squadra della città, il Belasica. L’esperienza nel campionato macedone è destinata però a durare solo una stagione, infatti l’Inter mostra subito il proprio interessamento per l’attaccante, che decide di portare in Italia nell’estate del 2001 sborsando 250 000 euro.

Nella stagione 2001-2002 non scende mai in campo con la prima squadra, ma con la formazione primavera vince il torneo di Viareggio a febbraio e il campionato Primavera a giugno, e la squadra meneghina decide di cederlo a titolo di prestito allo Spezia. In Liguria raccoglie 22 presenze e mette a segno 4 gol nel campionato di Serie C1.

La stagione seguente i nerazzurri decidono di prestarlo all’Ancona, con i marchigiani oltre all’esordio in Serie A nella partita Ancona-Siena disputata il 2 novembre 2003 arrivano 20 presenze e una rete.

Acquistato dalla Lazio per € 4 milioni, realizza il suo primo gol con la maglia biancoceleste in Coppa UEFA contro il Metalurh Donec’k nella trasferta vinta per 0-3 in Ucraina il 16 settembre 2004. Nella stessa partita realizza il suo primo gol anche il compagno d’attacco Tommaso Rocchi, con cui si trova subito in sintonia. Il 28 novembre successivo, segna il suo primo gol in campionato nella sfida casalinga persa 3-2 contro il Cagliari. Pandev si ripete nella gara successiva contro la Juventus, terminata con il punteggio di 2-1 per i bianconeri. Questo suo gol sarà ricordato dal giocatore macedone come uno dei più belli della sua intera carriera. Al termine della stagione, la Lazio chiude al decimo posto in classifica e Pandev totalizza 25 presenze e 3 reti.

Con l’arrivo del tecnico Delio Rossi nella stagione 2005-2006, Pandev diventa titolare fisso. Già dal primo impegno stagionale contro il Messina del 28 agosto 2005, l’attaccante macedone realizza il gol della vittoria che permettere alla Lazio di trionfare sugli avversari. Segna la sua prima doppietta in maglia biancoceleste nella partita vinta 3-1 contro il Livorno del 15 aprile 2006. Al termine della stagione la Lazio chiude al sesto posto in classifica, ma a causa delle sentenze dovute a Calciopoli scende al sedicesimo posto. Pandev disputa 41 incontri stagionali, di cui 35 in campionato, e firma 11 reti.

Nella sessione estiva del calciomercato 2006 la Lazio decide di acquistare a titolo definitivo l’intero cartellino del giocatore trovando però l’opposizione dell’Udinese, che vorrebbe portarlo in Friuli. L’acquisto si perfeziona a seguito dell’apertura delle buste con un’offerta di circa 4 milioni di euro. Inizia bene la stagione 2006-2007 segnando il gol decisivo nel primo turno di Coppa Italia contro il Rende. Il suo primo gol in campionato arriva il 5 novembre 2006, nella gara pareggiata 1-1 contro l’Empoli. A fine stagione, Pandev segna 11 gol in 33 partite di campionato contribuendo a portare la Lazio alla qualificazione in Champions League.

La nuova stagione comincia con il gol al primo impegno stagionale contro il Torino del 25 agosto 2007. Il giocatore macedone è protagonista anche in Champions League. Durante la fase a gironi del torneo, realizza una doppietta contro il Real Madrid all’Olimpico. Termina la stagione segnando 19 gol in 44 partite, 14 in campionato e 5 in 7 incontri di Champions.

L’11 gennaio 2009, alla prima partita dell’anno, realizza la sua prima tripletta in Serie A contro la Reggina in una partita finita 2-3. Pandev è stato uno dei protagonisti della vittoria della Lazio della Coppa Italia 2008-2009, dove si è laureato capocannoniere mettendo a segno 6 reti: due al Benevento (5-1), una contro Atalanta (2-0), Milan (1-2), Torino (3-1) e Juventus (2-1), quest’ultima sconfitta in semifinale. Ha raggiunto quota 64 gol con la maglia biancoceleste, a pari merito con Renzo Garlaschelli, risultando così il settimo giocatore più prolifico nella storia del club ed il primo invece per quanto riguarda i giocatori stranieri. Dopo la stagione 2008-2009 viene messo fuori rosa a causa di alcune lamentele riguardo al mancato rinnovamento del contratto. La Lazio vince la Supercoppa italiana 2009 (2-1 sull’Inter), ma Pandev non è nemmeno convocato per la competizione. A seguito dei rifiuti di Lotito di rescindere il contratto, ha minacciato anche di usare vie legali per perseguire il suo scopo, ossia lasciare la Lazio. Il 23 dicembre 2009 viene accolto il ricorso di Pandev al collegio arbitrale della Lega Calcio. Il giocatore riesce così a svincolarsi, mentre la Lazio viene condannata a pagare un risarcimento danni di 160 000 euro al macedone, più le spese processuali.

In cinque stagioni con la maglia della Lazio ha giocato complessivamente 159 partite segnando 48 gol e ha vinto una Coppa Italia.

Il 4 gennaio 2010 firma un quinquennale da € 3 milioni di annui (a salire) con l’Inter (sua ex squadra): veste la maglia numero 27. Sotto la guida di José Mourinho, il 6 gennaio esordisce in campionato nella partita Chievo-Inter (0-1). Segna il suo primo gol con la maglia dell’Inter il 16 gennaio 2010, contro il Bari (2-2), e replica il 24 gennaio successivo nel derby contro il Milan, siglando su punizione la rete del definitivo 2-0. Il 7 febbraio segna il suo terzo e ultimo gol stagionale con l’Inter nella partita vinta 3-0 contro il Cagliari. Il 5 maggio si aggiudica la Coppa Italia contro la Roma, vincendo così il suo primo titolo con la maglia nerazzurra e la seconda Coppa Italia consecutiva. Il 16, nella gara vinta per 0-1 contro il Siena, l’Inter vince lo scudetto (il primo personale per Pandev), chiudendo il campionato davanti alla Roma. Il 22 Pandev e l’Inter conquistano anche la Champions League. Pandev conclude la stagione con 3 gol in 27 partite, conquistando il treble classico con la squadra nerazzurra.

Con il nuovo allenatore Rafael Benítez, vince subito la Supercoppa italiana contro la Roma(quarto trofeo nel corso dell’anno): il macedone è autore, in chiusura di primo tempo, del momentaneo pareggio prima della doppietta di Samuel Eto’o. Il 18 dicembre, l’Inter si laurea campione del Mondo sconfiggendo per 3-0 il TP Mazembe grazie anche ad una sua rete. In campionato dove l’Inter arriva seconda, dietro il Milan.

Il 15 marzo 2011, in Bayern Monaco-Inter di Champions League, segna a due minuti dalla fine il decisivo gol del 3-2 che qualifica i nerazzurri ai quarti: sarà lui stesso a definirlo il gol più importante della sua carriera. Nella finale di Coppa Italia vinta per 3-1 sul Palermo, regala un assist a Diego Milito per la terza rete. In quasi due stagioni a Milano ha disputato 68 gare, segnando 8 gol (5 in campionato) e vinto sei trofei: uno scudetto, due Coppe Italia, una Supercoppa italiana, una Champions League ed un Mondiale per club.

Il 26 agosto 2011 passa, con la formula del prestito, al Napoli dove indossa la maglia numero 29: esordisce il 10 settembre, nella trasferta di Cesena vinta per 3-1 in cui colpisce la traversa. Segna le prime reti il 29 novembre, realizzando una doppietta nella gara pareggiata 3-3 contro la Juventus: in campionato colleziona 30 presenze e 6 gol. Il 20 maggio 2012 vince la Coppa Italia, dopo il 2-0 inflitto alla Juventus: risultato decisivo negli ottavi contro il Cesena, diviene il primo calciatore a centrare quattro successi – per di più consecutivi – nella competizione.

Il 6 giugno viene definitivamente acquistato dalla società partenopea per 7,5 milioni di euro firmando un contratto con scadenza nel 2015 ed opzione per un ulteriore anno.

In seguito alla cessione di Ezequiel Lavezzi al Paris SG, diviene titolare a supporto di Edinson Cavani nel 3-5-1-1 di Walter Mazzarri. Segna una rete in Supercoppa italiana contro la Juventus, nella sconfitta per 4-2. Il 16 settembre, in Napoli-Parma di campionato, segna un gol e fornisce un assist a Lorenzo Insigne contribuendo alla vittoria partenopea (3-1).. Gioca 33 incontri di campionato segnando 6 reti.

All’inizio della nuova stagione, Pandev ritrova l’allenatore Rafael Benítez, suo tecnico all’Inter. Il 28 settembre 2013, nella sesta giornata di campionato contro il Genoa, Pandev realizza una doppietta (primi gol stagionali per lui), contribuendo alla vittoria dei partenopei per 2-0. Il 20 marzo 2014 segna il suo primo gol in Europa League contro il Porto, fissando il temporaneo 1-0 per i partenopei (la partita terminerà 2-2, risultato che non permette al Napoli di accedere ai quarti di finale della competizione). Il 3 maggio 2014 vince la sua quinta Coppa Italia (la seconda con il Napoli) con un 3-1 ai danni della Fiorentina allo Stadio Olimpico di Roma.

Il 1º settembre 2014 passa a titolo definitivo ai turchi del Galatasaray, firmando un contratto annuale. Esordisce in campionato il 13 settembre seguente subentrando al 76′ ad Yılmaz in Galatasaray-Eskişehirspor, sfida pareggiata per 0-0. Tre giorni dopo esordisce in Champions League con la nuova maglia, giocando titolare per poi uscire nel secondo tempo la prima partita della fase a gironi pareggiata 1-1 contro l’Anderlecht. I primi gol con la maglia del Galatasaray arrivano il 16 dicembre, in Coppa di Turchia, contro il Balçova Belediyespor, segnando una tripletta e contribuendo al successo della sua squadra per 6-1.

Il 23 febbraio 2015 raggiunge un accordo con il Genoa, con cui firma un contratto biennale valido a partire dalla stagione 2015-2016. Il 7 luglio viene ufficializzato il suo tesseramento da parte del Genoa. Giocherà con la maglia numero 21. Fa il suo esordio in maglia rossoblù il 23 agosto in occasione della sconfitta esterna per 1-0 alla prima giornata contro il Palermo.

Pandev ha esordito in Nazionale il 21 agosto 2002, nella partita amichevole Macedonia-Malta (5-0), nella quale ha segnato una rete al 5′ minuto di gioco. Considerato il giocatore tecnicamente più dotato della sua Nazionale, ne è diventato il capitano e il leader indiscusso; con 26 gol realizzati è il miglior marcatore della storia della selezione.

Il 18 agosto 2004 ha segnato un gol nella partita contro l’Armenia, valida per le qualificazioni al campionato mondiale di calcio 2006. Pandev si è dimostrato determinante anche nelle successive gare di qualificazione, andando a segno anche contro i Paesi Bassi (2-2) il 9 ottobre successivo. Il 4 giugno 2005 realizza la sua prima doppietta in nazionale ai danni dell’Armenia. Pandev realizza anche un gol alla Rep. Ceca, incontro per 6-1, l’8 giugno successivo. Nonostante le prestazioni ottime dell’attaccante macedone, la nazionale non riesce a qualificarsi al Mondiale 2006.

Nelle qualificazioni al campionato europeo di calcio 2008, Pandev è andato a segno nelle due gare contro l’Andorra. Pandev ha anche segnato un gol durante le Qualificazioni al campionato mondiale di calcio 2010 su rigore nella sconfitta per 1-2 contro i Paesi Bassi.

Il 12 agosto 2009 ha segnato una doppietta nel primo tempo dell’amichevole contro i campioni d’Europa in carica della Spagna che ha portato la Macedonia in vantaggio di due gol, risultato poi ribaltato nel secondo tempo dagli spagnoli vincenti per 3 reti a 2. Grazie a questi due gol, Pandev ha superato Gjorgji Hristov e si è classificato al primo posto nella classifica di marcature per la squadra macedone.

All’inizio del 2013 annuncia l’addio alla nazionale.

Salvo poi ritornarci nel marzo 2016.

Statistiche aggiornate al 18 settembre 2016.

Dati aggiornati al 7 maggio 2014.

Altri progetti

1 Perin · 2 Edenílson · 3 Gentiletti · 4 Cofie · 5 Izzo · 8 Burdisso · 9 Simeone · 10 Ntcham · 11 Ocampos · 13 Gakpé · 14 Biraschi · 19 Pavoletti · 20 Cissokho · 21 Orbán · 22 Lazović · 23 Lamanna · 24 Muñoz · 26 Zanimacchia · 27 Pandev · 28 Brivio · 29 Fiamozzi · 30 Rigoni · 38 Zima · 44 Veloso · 58 Faccioli · 88 Rincón · 93 Laxalt · 99 Ninković · Allenatore: Jurić

Bonino (1922) · (1927) · Buscaglia (1936) · Boffi (1937) · Meazza (1938) · Marchetti (1939) · Salvadori (1940) · Ostromann (1941) · Lushta (1942) · V. Mazzola, Ispiro, V. Sentimenti (1943) · Tozzi (1958) · Firmani (1959) · Petris (1960) · Milan, Petris, Altafini (1961) · Recagni, Mazzero, Gilardoni, Micheli, Fumagalli (1962) · Domenghini (1963) · Cané, Petroni, Menichelli, Cappellaro, Riva, Rizzo (1965) · Hamrin (1966) · Rivera (1967) · Mujesan (1968) · Riva (1969) · Savoldi (1970) · Rivera (1971) · Boninsegna (1972) · Riva (1973) · Savoldi (1974) · Anastasi (1975) · Magistrelli (1976) · Calloni, Braglia (1977) · Savoldi (1978) · Palanca (1979) · Pruzzo, Damiani (1980) · Graziani (1981) · Altobelli (1982) · Greco (1983) · Schachner (1984) · Francis (1985) · Cecconi (1986) · Giordano (1987) · Maradona (1988) · Vialli (1989) · F. Baresi (1990) · Rizzitelli, Völler (1991) · Melli (1992) · Signori (1993) · Lombardo (1994) · Ravanelli, Branca (1995) · Batistuta (1996) · Maspero (1997) · Signori (1998) · Crespo (1999) · Caccia, Mboma, Di Michele, Flachi (2000) · Schwoch (2001) · Amoruso (2002) · Miccoli (2003) · Fiore (2004) · Lazzari (2005) · Del Piero (2006) · Bonazzoli, N. Burdisso, Flachi, Greco, Crespo, Perrotta (2007) · Balotelli, Cruz, Iaquinta (2008) · Pandev (2009) · Baclet, Mutu, Arma (2010) · Eto’o, Evacuo (2011) · Cavani (2012) · Destro (2013) · Callejón, De Luca, Ebagua, Evacuo, Gervinho, Insigne, Sansovini (2014) · Di Natale, Gómez (2015) · Bizzotto (2016)

## Chaandni Raatain

Chandni Raatein (also spelled Chaandni Raatain) is a Pakistani drama centered on certain South Asian cultural backgrounds, and issues such as polygamy, motherhood and the distanced mother and daughter-in-law bond. The show aired on Pakistan Television in 2002, and repeat-telecasted from the same channel in 2008.

Head of her family, Bee Jan (Safia Khairi) has her own strict set of rules and cultural values, which she enforces in her home with zeal and zest. The all-mighty but too traditional mother has two sons, Aamir (Javed Sheikh), who is married to Abginey (Faryal Gohar); and Aasim (Humayun Saeed), who is unmarried.

Aamir and Abginey are childless, despite eight years of happy marriage. Seeing how Abginey can not bear a child, Bee Jan decides to marry her elder son off to a younger, prettier girl. A submissive son with an almost scary mother, Aamir can not stand up and fight for Abginey. The result is his marriage to Maha (Mahnoor Baloch).

Maha is a rude, unorthodox girl, who lives life the way she wants, and clearly refuses to follow Bee Jan’s rules. Bee Jan is angry but, when Maha becomes pregnant, all of her fury vanishes. Abginey is still childless, and her position in the house continues to deteriorate as Maha treats her like filth.

It is during these circumstances that Abginey’s London-residing family – her parents (Badar Khalil and Shehryar Zaidi) and her younger sister, Zarmeeney (Aaminah Haq) – pay a surprise visit to Abginey. They are shocked to learn of Aamir’s second marriage, which Abginey had not told them of. They try hard to take Abginey back to London with them, but she refuses outright.

Maha, meanwhile, wants Aamir’s younger brother, Asim, to marry her cousin, Iraj. Defying Bee Jan and Aamir, Asim declares his love for Zarmeeney. Bee Jan is afraid that Zarmeeney might, like sister Abginey, be infertile, but Asim refuses to listen. They marry and, despite a lot of problems, come together as a happy couple in the end.

A subplot also reveals how Maha had been married previously, and has a son from that marriage.

„The role of a woman towards/against/supporting [another woman]‘ has been called the ‚essence of the drama.“

In 2008, Chandni Ratein was repeatedly telecast on PTV Home. The drama was aired from Monday to Friday for thirty minutes each day during the Matinee Time show, which re-telecasts quality television serials to provide home, family entertainment.

## Alexander Menne

Wilhelm Alexander Menne (* 20. Juni 1904 in Dortmund; † 13. März 1993 in Kronberg im Taunus) war ein deutscher Manager und Politiker (FDP).

Nach dem Besuch des Realgymnasiums absolvierte Menne eine Ausbildung zum Bankkaufmann. Er arbeitete zunächst als Industrie- und Exportkaufmann, wurde dann Manager in der Industrie und war von 1929 bis 1939 Vorstand eines chemischen Unternehmens in London. Bei Ausbruch des Zweiten Weltkriegs kehrte er nach Deutschland zurück. Von 1940 bis 1951 war er Vorstand eines chemischen Werkes in Westfalen und Hamburg.

Menne war seit 1940 Abteilungsleiter im Reichsministerium für Bewaffnung und Munition. 1943 wurde er wegen des Verdachts auf Wehrkraftzersetzung, Hochverrat, Heimtücke und Beleidigung des Führers von der Gestapo festgenommen und für zehn Monate inhaftiert. Anschließend tauchte er bis zum Kriegsende bei Bauern in Brandenburg unter.

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg beteiligte sich Menne an der Entflechtung und Aufteilung der I.G. Farben. Er erhielt im Herbst 1945 die Zustimmung der Besatzungsmacht zur Gründung einer Vereinigung der chemischen Betriebe und war von 1946 bis 1956 Präsident des Verbandes der Chemischen Industrie (VCI). Als Mitbegründer der Farbwerke Hoechst AG war er von 1952 bis 1970 Vorstandsmitglied des Unternehmens. Außerdem fungierte er von 1949 bis 1968 als Vizepräsident des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Industrie (BDI).

Menne war Mitglied der FDP.

Menne gehörte dem Deutschen Bundestag von 1961 bis 1969 sowie vom 31. Mai 1972, als er für den ausgeschiedenen Abgeordneten Knut von Kühlmann-Stumm nachrückte, bis 1972 an. Er war stets über die Landesliste der FDP Hessen ins Parlament eingezogen. Von 1965 bis 1969 war er Vorsitzender des Bundestagsausschusses für Wirtschaft und Mittelstandsfragen.

## Tsutsujigaoka Station (Tokyo)

Tsutsujigaoka Station (つつじヶ丘駅 Tsutsujigaoka-eki?) is a railway station on the Keio Line in Chōfu, Tokyo, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Keio Corporation.

Tsutsujigaoka Station is served by the Keio Line, and is located 12.5 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Shinjuku Station.

This station consists of two island platforms serving four tracks, with an elevated station building located above the tracks and platforms.

The station opened on April 15, 1913¥as Kaneko Station (金子駅?) It was renamed to its present name in 1957.

Note: Stations in italics (Hatsudai and Hatagaya) are on the Keiō New Line. Keiō Line trains bypass these stations.

Coordinates:

## Michael I of Russia

Michael I of Russia (Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов, Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov) (22 July [O.S. 12 July] 1596 – 23 July [O.S. 13 July] 1645) became the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov (later known as Patriarch Filaret) and of Xenia (later known as „the great nun“ Martha). He was also a nephew of Feodor I (the last Rurikid Tsar) through his aunt Anastasia Romanovna (his paternal grandfather’s sister) and through marriage with Tsar Ivan IV of Russia. His accession marked the end of the Time of Troubles of 1598-1613.

Michael’s grandfather, Nikita, was brother to the earlier Tsarina Anastasia and a central advisor to Ivan the Terrible. As a young boy, Michael and his mother had been exiled to Beloozero in 1600. This was a result of the recently elected Tsar Boris Godunov, in 1598, falsely accusing his father, Feodor, of treason. This may have been partly because Feodor had married Ksenia Shestova against Boris‘ wishes. Michael was unanimously elected Tsar of Russia by a national assembly on 21 February 1613, but the delegates of the council did not discover the young Tsar and his mother at the Ipatiev Monastery near Kostroma until 24 March. He had been chosen after several other options had been removed, including royalty of Poland and Sweden. Initially, Martha protested, believing and stating that her son was too young and tender for so difficult an office, and in such a troublesome time.

Michael’s election and accession to the throne form the basis of the Ivan Susanin legend, which Russian composer Mikhail Glinka dramatized in his opera A Life for the Tsar.

In so dilapidated a condition was the capital at this time that Michael had to wait for several weeks at the Troitsa monastery, 75 miles (121 km) off, before decent accommodation could be provided for him at Moscow. He was crowned on 22 July 1613. The first task of the new tsar was to clear the land of the countries occupying it. Sweden and Poland were then dealt with respectively by the peace of Stolbovo (17 February 1617) and the Truce of Deulino (1 December 1618). The most important result of the Truce of Deulino was the return from exile of the tsar’s father, who henceforth took over the government till his death in October 1633, Michael occupying quite a subordinate position.

Tsar Michael suffered from a progressive leg injury (a consequence of a horse accident early in his life), which resulted in his not being able to walk towards the end of his life. He was a gentle and pious prince who gave little trouble to anyone and effaced himself behind his counsellors. Sometimes they were relatively honest and capable men like his father; sometimes they were corrupted and bigoted, like the Saltykov relatives of his mother. He was married twice. He was married off to Princess Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova in 1624, but she became ill, and died in early 1625, only four months after the marriage. In 1626, he married Eudoxia Streshneva (1608–1645), who bore him 10 children, of whom four reached adulthood: the future Tsar Alexis and the Tsarevnas Irina, Anna, and Tatiana. Michael’s failure to wed his elder daughter Irina with Count Valdemar Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, a morganatic son of King Christian IV of Denmark, in consequence of the refusal of the latter to accept Orthodoxy, so deeply afflicted him as to contribute to bringing about his death on 12 July 1645.

The two government offices (prikazes) that were most important politically were Posolsky Prikaz („Foreign Office“) and Razryadny Prikaz (a Duma chancellery and a personnel department for both central and provincial administration including military command). Those offices could be pivotal in struggles between Boyar factions, so they were traditionally headed not by Boyars but by dyak (professional clerks).

The first head of the Posolsky Prikaz under Michael was Pyotr Tretyakov until his death in 1618; he conducted policy of allying with Sweden against Poland. The next one, Ivan Gramotin had a reputation of a Poloniphile; this appointment was necessary to bring forth Filaret’s release from captivity. In mid-20s Filaret began preparations for war with Poland; Gramotin fell in his disfavour and was fired and exiled in 1626. The same fate was shared by Efim Telepnev in 1630 and Fedor Likhachov in 1631 – they too tried to soothe Filaret’s belligerent approach. Ivan Gryazev, appointed in 1632, was promoted from second ranks of bureaucracy to fulfill Filaret’s orders. After Filaret’s and Gryazev’s deaths the post was once again assumed by Gramotin in 1634, and after the latter’s retirement in 1635, by Likhachov, with general course on pacification.

Razryadny Prikaz was first headed by Sydavny Vasilyev; Filaret replaced him by his fellow in captivity Tomilo Lugovskoy, but the latter somehow caused Filaret’s anger and was exiled. In 1623 Fedor Likhachov was made head of Prikaz till his shift to Posolsky Prikaz, and in 1630 Razryad was given to Ivan Gavrenev, an outstanding administrator who took up this post for 30 years.

Three other strategic offices were Streletsky Prikaz (in charge of streltsy regiments who served as Moscow garrison), Treasury (Prikaz bolshoy kazny), and Aptekarsky Prikaz („Pharmacy office“, in fact ministry of health, most particularly the tsar’s health). After Filaret’s arrival their former heads were sent away from Moscow, and all three given to Ivan Cherkassky (Filaret’s nephew), who proved to be an able and competent administrator and was a de facto prime minister till his death in 1642. Fedor Sheremetev who had succeeded to all Cherkassky’s posts was a rather weak figure; the real power was in the hands of a court marshal, Alexey Lvov.

From his marriage to Eudoxia Streshneva, Michael fathered 10 children:

Fadrique Enríquez (ca. 1465–1538), 4th Lord of Medina de Rioseco, was the 4th Admiral of Castile and played an important role in defeating the Revolt of the Comuneros.

Fadrique Enríquez was the son of Alonso Enríquez (1435-1485) and María de Velasco. He inherited his father’s possessions in Palencia and the castle of Medina de Rioseco. On February 14, 1490, he was appointed Admiral of Castile by the Reyes Católicos. He was a cousin of King Ferdinand II of Aragon, son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enríquez of Córdoba.

Fadrique Enríquez was hot-tempered and was banished to Sicily after a row with Queen Isabella I of Castile. In 1489 he was rehabilitated and participated in the conquest of Baza and the Battle of Granada.

During his stay in Sicily, he married the very rich Ana de Cabrera, countess of Modica, Osona, Cabrera and Bas. They had no children.

Fadrique Enríquez himself was count of Melgar, lord of Medina de Rioseco, Mansilla, Rueda, Aguilar, and Villabrajima and was one of the richest persons in Spain. His yearly income was estimated at 50.000 ducats.

In 1496 he accompanied Joanna of Castile to Flanders to be married to Philip the Handsome. On his return, he escorted Philip’s sister, Margaret, to Spain to be married to prince John.

Fadrique reached the highest political power during the Revolt of the Comuneros. In 1520 he became, together with his cousin Íñigo Fernández de Velasco, 2nd Duke of Frías, governor of Spain in the absence of Charles V. He brought peace and was rewarded by the Emperor with the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Fadrique Enríquez was mecenas of artists like Juan Boscán.

He is buried with his wife in the monastery of San Francisco in Medina de Rioseco.

He was succeeded by his brother Fernando Enríquez de Velasco.

## Paul Potts

Paul Potts (født 1970) er en operasanger fra Port Talbot nær Swansea i Wales .

Den 9. juni 2007 var Paul Potts med i Simon Cowells Idol-lignende talentprogram Britain’s Got Talent på den britiske fjernsynskanalen ITV1 som ble spilt inn i Cardiffs Millennium Center. Han sang Giacomo Puccinis «Nessun Dorma»‘ og tok dommerne og de 2000 tilskuerne med storm. Han gikk videre til finalen og vant talentkokurransen med flest telefonstemmer 17. juni 2007.

Selv om Paul Potts i programmet blir framstilt som en amatørsanger, har han tatt sangtimer hos Gilbert and Sullivan i Bristol, opptrådt med Royal Philharmonic Orchestra og fått undervisning i Italia. I Bathoperaen har han sunget Don Basilio (Figaros bryllup), Don Ottavio (Don Giovanni) og tittelrollen i Verdis Don Carlos. Han sang opera foran publikum for første gang på en karaokebar i 1999.

Opptaket fra ITV1 der Paul Potts synger Puccini er blitt en stor hit på video-nettstedet YouTube.

1  · 2  · 3  · 4

Anthony McPartlin  · Declan Donnelly

Simon Cowell  · Amanda Holden  · Piers Morgan  · Michael McIntyre · (Kelly Brooks)

Paul Potts  · George Sampson  · Diversity  · Spelbound

Damon Scott  · Signature  · Susan Boyle  · Twist & Pulse

Connie Talbot  · Andrew Johnston  · Julian Smith  · Kieran Gaffney

The Bar Wizards  · Bessie Cursons  · Kombat Breakers

Faryl Smith  · Kate & Jin  · eScala  · Andrew Muir  · Nemesis  · Strike

Stavros Flatley  · Aidan Davis  · Hollie Steel  · Shaheen Jafargholi  · Flawless  · Shaun Smith  · 2 Grand

Tina & Chandi  · Paul Burling  · Janey Cutler  · Tobias Mead  · Christopher Stone  · Connected  · Liam McNally

Erlend Bratland (sanger: Norge, 2008)  · Quick (dansegruppe: Norge 2009)  · Zillah & Totte (buktalerpar: Sverige, 2007)  · Zara Larsson (sanger: Sverige, 2008)  · Charlie Caper (tryllekunstner: Sverige, 2009)  · Robotdrengene (poppingduo: Danmark, 2008)  · Aleksi Vähäpassi (beatboxer: Finland, 2007)

Paul Potts (operasanger: Storbritannia, 2007)  · George Sampson (streetdancer: Storbritannia, 2008)  · Diversity (dansegruppe: Storbritannia, 2009)  · Bianca Ryan (sanger: USA, 2006)  · Terry Fator (buktaler: USA, 2007)  · Neal E. Boyd (operasanger: USA, 2008)  ·  ? (?: USA, 2009)  · Bonnie Anderson (sanger: Australia, 2007)  · Smokin‘ Joe Robinson (gitarist: Australia, 2008)  · Mark Vincent (operasanger: Australia, 2009)

Utasi Arpard (komiker: Ungarn, 2007)  · Martín Bustos (komiker: Argentina, 2008)  ·  ? (?: Argentina, 2009)  · Nobulus (dansegruppe: Østerrike, 2007)  · Triple E (sangtrio: Belgia, 2007)

Salah (danser: Frankrike, 2007)  · B-boy Junior (danser: Frankrike, 2008)  · Alex (fkammeartist: Frankrike, 2009)  · Ricardo Marinello (sanger: Tyskland, 2007)  · Michael Hirte (munnspiller: Tyskland, 2008)  · Christos Zacharapoulos (sanger: Hellas, 2008)  ·  ? (?: Hellas, 2008)  · The Mullkerrins (band: Irland, 2009)

Kelev og Eve (trapesduo: Israel, 2007)  · Daniëlle Bubberman (turner: Nederland, 2008)  ·  ? (?: Nederland, 2009)  · Chaz Cummings (danser: New Zealand’s Got Talent, 2008)  ·  ? (?: New Zealand, 2009)  ·  ? (?: Filippinene, 2009)  · Melkart Ball (akrobat: Polen, 2008)  · Marcin Wyrostek (trekkspiller: Polen, 2009)

Abstractin‘ (dansegruppe: Portugal, 2007)  · Maskin Tokaev (pianist: Russland, 2007)  · Dmitry Bulkin (akrobat: Russland, 2008)  · Grace (sirkusgruppe: Russland, 2009)  · The Old School Brothers (band: Slovakia, 2008)

? (?: Sør-Afrika, 2009)  · Salva Rodriguez (sanger: Spania, 2008)  ·  ? (?: Ukraina, 2009)  ·  ? (?: Kina, 2009)

· · · · · · · · ·