Organizational intelligence

Organizational Intelligence (OI) is the capability of an organization to comprehend and conclude knowledge relevant to its business purpose. In other words, it is the intellectual capacity of the entire organizations. With relevant organizational intelligence comes great potential value for companies and therefore organizations find study where their strengths and weaknesses lie in responding to change and complexity. Organizational Intelligence embraces both knowledge management and organizational learning, as it is the application of knowledge management concepts to a business environment, additionally including learning mechanisms, comprehension models and business value network models, such as the balanced scorecard concept. Organizational Intelligence consists of the ability to make sense of complex situations and act effectively, to interpret and act upon relevant events and signals in the environment. It also includes the ability to develop, share and use knowledge relevant to its business purpose as well as the ability to reflect and learn from experience

While organizations in the past have been viewed as compilations of tasks, products, employees, profit centers and processes, today they are seen as intelligent systems that are designed to manage knowledge. Scholars have shown that organizations engage in learning processes using tacit forms of intuitive knowledge, hard data stored in computer networks and information gleaned from the environment, all of which are used to make sensible decisions. Because this complex process involves large numbers of people interacting with diverse information systems, organizational intelligence is more than the aggregate intelligence of organizational members; it is the intelligence of the organization itself as a larger system.

Organizational Intelligence and operational intelligence are usually seen as subsets of business analytics, since both are types of know-how that have the goal of improving business performance across the enterprise. Operational Intelligence is often linked to or compared with real-time business intelligence (BI) since both deliver visibility and insight into business operations. Operational Intelligence differs from BI in being primarily activity-centric, whereas BI is primarily data-centric and relies on a database (or Hadoop cluster) as well as after-the-fact and report-based approaches to identifying patterns in data. By definition, Operational Intelligence works in real-time and transforms unstructured data streams—from log file, sensor, network and service data—into real-time, actionable intelligence.

While Operational Intelligence is activity-focused and BI is data-focused, Organizational Intelligence differs from these other approaches in being workforce- or organization-focused. Organizational Intelligence helps companies understand the relationships that drive their business—by identifying communities as well as employee workflow and collaborative communications patterns across geographies, divisions, and internal and external organizations.

There are many aspects that organizations must consider in the three steps that they take to gain information. Without these considerations, organizations may experience strategic challenges.

First of all, organizations must acquire applicable information to make beneficial predictions. An organization must ask what they already know and need to know. They must also know the timeframe in which the information is needed and where and to find it. To make the best judgements, they must also evaluate the value of the information. Seemingly valuable information that costs more to find than gain from can hurt the company. If judged valuable, the organization must find the most efficient means of acquiring it.

After acquiring the right information, an organization must know how to properly process it. They need to know how they can make new information more retrievable and how they can make sure that the information gets disseminated to the right people. The organization must figure out how to secure it and how long and if long, how they need to preserve it.

The last step includes the utilization of the information. An organization should ask themselves if they are looking at the right information and if so, if they are placing them in the right context. They must consider the possible environmental changes alter the informational value and determine all the relevant connections and patterns. Not forgetting to know if they are including the right people in the decision making process and if there are any technology that can improve the decision making.

There are briefly four dimensions of problems that many organizations face when dealing with information. This is also referred to as organizational ignorance.

An organization may be uncertain when it does not possess enough or the right information. To exemplify, a company may be uncertain in a competitive landscape because it does not have enough information to see how the competitors will act. This does not imply that the context of the situation is complex or unclear. Uncertainty can even exist when the range of possibilities is small and simple. There are different degrees of uncertainty. First of all an organization can be completely determined (complete certainty), have some probabilities (risk), probabilities estimated with lesser confidence (subjective uncertainty), unknown probabilities (traditional uncertainty) or undefined (complete uncertainty). However even with the lack of clarity, uncertainty assumes that the context of the problem is clear and well-understood.

An organization may be processing more information than they can manage. Complexity doesn’t always correlate with vagueness or unpredictability. Rather, it occurs when there are too much or when the scope is too large to process. Organizations with complexity problems have interrelated variables, solutions and methods. Managing these problems is dependent of the individuals and the organizations. For instance, uninformed and novices must deal with each elements and relationships one by one but experts can perceive the situation better and find familiar patterns more easily. Organizations facing complexity must have the capacity to locate, map, collect, share, exploit on what the organizations need to know.

An organization may not have a conceptual framework for interpreting the information. If uncertainty represents not having answers, and complexity represents difficulty in finding them, ambiguity represents not being able to formulate the right questions. Ambiguity cannot be resolved by increasing the amount of information. An organization must be able to interpret and explain the information in collective agreement. Hypotheses should be continuously made and discussed and key communication activities such as face-to-face conversations must be made. Resolving ambiguity in the earlier stages than competitors gives organizations much advantage because it helps organizations to make more appropriate and strategic decisions and have better awareness.

An organization may be having competing frameworks for interpreting a job. Equivocality refers to multiple interpretations of the field. Each interpretation is unambiguous but differ from each other and they may be mutually exclusive or in conflict. Equivocality result not only because everyone’s experiences and values are unique but also from unreliable or conflicting preferences and goals, different interests or vague roles and responsibilities.

A culture of the organization describes how the organization will work in order to succeed. It can simply be described as the organization’s atmosphere or values. Organizational culture is important because it can be used as a successful leadership tool to shape and improve the organization. Once the culture is settled, it can be used by the leader to deliver his/her vision to the organization. Moreover, if the leader deeply understands the organizational culture, he/she can also use it to predict a future outcome in certain situations.

An organization with control culture is company oriented and reality oriented. They will succeed by controlling and keeping restrictions. The organization will value timeliness of information, security and hierarchical standardization. They make plans and maintain a process. This organization has stability, predictability and authority. For example, an organization with control culture can be monarchy.

An organization with competence culture is company oriented and possibility oriented. They will succeed by being the best with exclusivity of the information. The organization values efficiency, accuracy and achievement. They look for creativity and expertise from the people in the organization. For example, an organization with competence culture can be…

An organization with cultivation culture is people oriented and possibility oriented. They will succeed by growing people, who fulfill the shared vision. The organization values self-actualization and brilliance. They also prioritizes the idea from people. For example, an organization with cultivation culture can be technological utopianism.

Collaboration An organization with collaboration culture is people oriented and reality oriented. They will succeed by working together. The organization values affiliation and teamwork. They also prioritizes people in the organization. This organization has accessibility and inclusiveness of information. For example, an organization with collaboration culture can be anarchy.

An organization with collaboration culture is people oriented and reality oriented. They will succeed by working together. The organization values affiliation and teamwork. They also prioritizes people in the organization. This organization has accessibility and inclusiveness of information. For example, an organization with collaboration culture can be anarchy.

An organization’s leadership effectiveness is closely related to the organization’s intelligence and innovation. There are six leadership factors that determines organization’ atmosphere : flexibility (how freely people can communicate with each other and innovate), responsibility (sense of loyalty to the organization), the standards set by people in the organization, appropriate feedback and rewards, the clear vision shared by people and the amount of commitment to the goal. Combination of these factors result in six different leadership styles: Coercive/Commanding, Authoritative/Visionary, Affiliative, Democratic, Coaching and Pacesetting.

Furthermore, organizational intelligence is a collection of individual intelligence. The leadership style of the organization and its atmosphere are related to the organization’s innovation. Innovation happens when there are new information getting shared and processed efficiently in the organization.

In King Arthur’s Round Table, Harvard professor David Perkins uses the metaphor of the Round Table to discuss how collaborative conversations create smarter organizations. The Round Table is one of the most familiar stories of Arthurian legend since it’s meant to signal the shift in power from a king who normally sat at the head of a long table and made long pronouncements while everyone else listened. By reducing hierarchy and making collaboration easier, Arthur discovered an important source of power—organizational intelligence—that allowed him to unite medieval England.

The lawnmower paradox, another metaphor from Perkins’ book, describes the fact that, while pooling physical effort is easy, pooling mental effort is hard. „It’s a lot easier for 10 people to collaborate on mowing a large lawn than for 10 people to collaborate on designing a lawnmower.“ An organization’s intelligence is reflected by the types of conversations—face-to-face and electronic, from the mailroom to the boardroom—which members have with one another. „At the top, top level, organizational intelligence depends on ways of interacting with one another that show good knowledge processing and positive symbolic conduct.“

Harold Wilensky argued that organizational intelligence benefited from healthy argument and constructive rivalry.

Zeeshan Jawed Shah

Zeeshan Jawed Shah (also known as Zeeshan J. Shah) (born 31 May 1979) is a Pakistani filmmaker based in Bahrain. Zeeshan teaches filmmaking, animation and visual effects courses in University College of Bahrain, previously Zeeshan had taught Fine Arts in New York Institute of Technology Bahrain Campus for more than seven years. Zeeshan is considered as the pioneer of students film project in Bahrain and the first one to do feature-length commercial films as student projects in Bahrain.

Zeeshan was born in Saudi Arabia and came to Bahrain in 2006 to New York Institute of Technology Bahrain Campus, he mainly taught computer graphics and animation courses in the beginning and then he included Art History, Drawing, and Photography in his teaching list. Gradually he started to work on film projects with NYIT students in Bahrain and released three commercial films so far in Bahrain, and currently working on first International full-fledged Bahraini horror comedy. Apart from feature-length films, on 5 May 2013 Zeeshan showcased his UCB Students video projects in Bahrain in 2013, Saar Cinema. and in 2014 along with the first ever Multimedia Exhibition in Bahrain.

Zeeshan initially went to Dhahran High School and then he got transferred to Pakistan International School, Al-Khobar in 1988. After finishing his high school in 1998, Zeeshan joined Iqra University in Karachi. He completed his Baccalaureate in Computer Science in 2002 and Masters in Computer Science with majors in Multimedia and Computer Graphics in 2003; he received a scholarship for his Master’s program. He also worked as a part-time as an in-house graphic designer for Iqra University and taught continuing education and extended education programs.

Soon after finishing his master’s degree program, Zeeshan came to his birthplace Saudi Arabia in the year 2003, where his father was still working in Siemens. Zeeshan joined a local Saudi company, where he started his career as an in-house graphic designer. After two years Zeeshan moved to Riyadh and worked in an event organizing company for only six months. In the year 2006 Zeeshan came to Bahrain and joined New York Institute of Technology Bahrain Campus. In his first year in the university, he taught basic three-dimensional design courses, 3D animation courses, web design courses, and motion graphics courses. And in the year 2009 Zeeshan introduced a Film Making courses with the approval of NY head office. During his teaching history, Zeeshan participated in many local and international Arts Exhibitions, he participated in Al Aali Mall Art Exhibition 2012 and 2013 and #UniteBH and Phoenix Museum in US He also conducted Photography and Film Making workshop at Saudi Aramco in year 2011.
In the beginning of the year 2012, NYIT Bahrain announced their campus relocation, after a year of this announcement Zeeshan switched his job from NYIT to University College of Bahrain.

Zeeshan Also worked with international artists and exhibited photography exhibition for peace during the uprising in Bahrain, one of his photography series from the same exhibition won Creativity International Gold Award for best photography series.

Zeeshan is the first Film Maker in the history of Bahrain to offer a professional and commercial Film Making course at NYIT Bahrain Campus. Zeeshan’s Idea was to launch a Bahrain Film City where students join the program and produce movies, work on digital media, learn performance art, direction and many other areas related to the film. Zeeshan suggested NYIT head office in New York in the year 2008 and proposed them to offer a course called special projects B related to filmmaking, the main idea behind special projects B was to launch a course where students combine all those skills and techniques of computer graphics courses that they had learned in past semesters, they fuse all those in one project and the best project to implement all this was the Film Making course. Zeeshan released his student’s first movie in Bahrain in the year 2009, which was called Paranorma, it was a horror anthology film that contains three separate horror stories. His second movie with the students was Gilgamesh Pearl, the movie was released in saar cinema in Bahrain in year 2011, the movie revolves around three friends who were wrongly accused of series of murders, the film raised $2,567 and was donated to charity: water. Zeeshan’s third movie with students was released on 12 May 2012 in Seef Megaplex, the movie was called Silveraven which became a huge success and according to IMDB it is one of the best titles of Bahrain so far, the story of the movie „Silveraven“ revolves around an alien orphan who came to earth from the planet called Ravena which was abducted by an evil villain Maverick, „Silveraven“ movie raised $2,637 and was donated to Bahrain Red Crescent Society. Zeeshan was also involved in short film projects with the students, and recently he worked for HRH Bahrain Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa International Scholarship program, this was for the first time the crown prince international scholarship program filmed. Zeeshan’s latest project is Bahrain’s first full-fledged Horror Comedy „Dead Sands“ Dead Sands was premiered on 20 November in Bahrain, and was a big hit in Bahrain, the movie created a history for being the best students film project and the director of the movie Ameera Qaed was pronounced Bahrain’s first female film director, Dead Sands was released under Fantasy Feature banner and was sponsored by Ahmed Zayani and Sons, Bahrain Cinema Company, and NYIT Bahrain. On 5 May 2013, Zeeshan showcased 10 short films produced by his students from University College of Bahrain in Bahrain Saar Cinema. In the 2015 Zeeshan Shah worked with his old friend Saleh Sharif and produced a filmed called „Bits of What I Have“ that Saleh wrote, the film was considered as Bahrain’s first international movie entirely shot in Turkey in Turkish Language. The film got highly recognized as one of the major ground break Bahraini film that belongs to a serious and real cinema. Zeeshan is widely involved in Virtual Reality and Immersive Films.

Zeeshan was diagnosed with kidney cancer in the year 2014, determined to fight the deadly disease, he moved to the , a premier medical college in Pakistan for a specialized treatment on 22 July. There, he underwent surgery in which his right kidney got removed. Now, cured of cancer, Zeeshan has also undergone a kidney transplant same year.


Виставижн, Виста Вижн (англ. VistaVision, Vistavision Motion Picture High-Fidelity) — широкоэкранная кинематографическая система, использующая для съёмки стандартную 35-мм киноплёнку, движущуюся в киносъёмочном аппарате горизонтально, и сферическую (аксиально-симметричную) оптику. Продольное расположение кадра большой площади позволяет получать изображение высокого качества.

Распространение телевизионного вещания в конце 1940-х годов заставило кинопроизводителей искать новые технические решения, повышающие зрелищность кинематографа, чтобы вернуть зрителей в кинотеатры. Одним из таких решений стала разработка широкоэкранных систем кинематографа, приближающих форму и размеры киноэкрана к полю зрения человека. Первыми широкоэкранными системами стали панорамные, в том числе самая известная из них: «Синерама», дебютировавшая в сентябре 1952 года. Пять месяцев спустя появилась первая широкоэкранная система с анаморфированием: «Синемаскоп», разработанная компанией «XX век Фокс» (англ. XX Century Fox). Ещё одним вариантом широкоэкранного кино стал кашетированный формат кинокомпании «Парамаунт Пикчерз» (англ. Paramount Pictures), выпустившей в 1953 году фильм «Шейн» с соотношением сторон кадра 1,66:1. Фильмокопия на 35-мм киноплёнке со стандартным шагом кадра в 4 перфорации содержала изображение кадра уменьшенной по сравнению с классическим форматом высоты, который демонстрировался на экране увеличенной ширины короткофокусным объективом.

Такая технология быстро стала популярной из-за своей простоты и возможности оснащения широким экраном существующих кинотеатров с оборудованием для классического кинопоказа. Однако, уменьшенная площадь кадра негатива сказывалась на качестве изображения: зернистость и дефекты стали заметнее из-за большого увеличения. Одним из решений проблемы стало применение кадра негатива большей площади, чем кадр фильмокопии, поскольку на экране видима только зернистость негативной киноплёнки, значительно большая, чем у позитивной. В результате, кинокомпания «Парамаунт» в 1954 году запустила систему «Виставижн» с большим размером негатива, пригодную как для производства уменьшенных кашетированных фильмов, так и контактных фильмокопий высокого разрешения.

Система «Виставижн» использовалась до 1962 года и применяла 35-мм негатив с продольным расположением кадра и шагом в 8 перфораций. Стандартная частота съёмки и проекции — 24 кадра в секунду. Размер кадра на негативе составлял 37,72×25,17 мм, но при печати совмещённых фильмокопий контактным способом часть изображения отрезалась для размещения оптической фонограммы, записанной по псевдостереофонической системе «Перспекта». В этом случае размер кадра фильмокопии составлял 36×18,34 мм с соотношением сторон 1,96:1. Таким образом, формат оригинального негатива «Виставижн» был только производственным. Контактным способом фильмы печатались очень небольшими тиражами, предназначенными, главным образом, для премьерных показов и кинофестивалей. Такой формат позитива требовал специальных кинопроекторов, более дорогих и сложных, чем обычные из-за удвоенной скорости движения киноплёнки и её хода в трёх плоскостях. Большая площадь кадра позволяла удвоить световой поток проектора и тем самым повысить яркость экрана или увеличить его размеры. В то же время, из-за особенностей кинематики кинопроекторов «Виставижн», их невозможно было сделать двухформатными, как это предусмотрено в 70-мм аппаратуре.

Близкой альтернативой контактным фильмокопиям были анаморфированные с соотношением сторон кадра 2,0:1, но к концу использования киносистемы «Парамаунт» отказался от такой печати в пользу кашетирования. Для широкого проката предназначались копии, отпечатанные оптическим способом с кадром, расположенным поперёк плёнки. Такие копии кашетированного формата были пригодны для проката в обычных кинотеатрах. Соотношение сторон кадра могло быть трёх значений — 1,48:1, 1,66:1 или 1,85:1, основным из которых было первое, поскольку в наибольшей степени соответствовало формату негатива. Все остальные форматы кадра достигались разной степенью кашетирования. Оригинальное соотношение сторон на негативе составляло 1,52:1. Первый фильм в этой системе — «Белое Рождество» (англ. White Christmas) — снят на студии «Парамаунт» в 1954 году. Его премьера состоялась 14 октября 1954 года в нью-йоркском мюзик-холле «Радио-Сити».

После появления мелкозернистых негативных плёнок и многочисленных 70-мм форматов, «Виставижн» устарел и использовался для съёмки фильмов до начала 1960-х годов. Решающую роль сыграл успех широкоформатных киносистем с меньшими динамическими нагрузками на киноплёнку из-за небольшого шага кадра, и возможностью создания универсальных кинопроекторов 35/70-мм. Оптическая звукозапись по системе «Перспекта» также не могла конкурировать с многоканальными магнитными фонограммами более современных киноформатов.

Последней кинокартиной, снятой по системе «Виставижн» стала «Шесть моих возлюбленных», вышедшая в прокат в 1963 году. Однако, в последующем, некоторые киностудии использовали его при съёмке рабочего материала с высоким разрешением для отдельных комбинированных сцен. Постановщик спецэффектов Джон Дайкстра в 1975 году использовал камеры «Виставижн» для съёмки комбинированных кадров киносаги «Звёздные войны». Отдельные сцены фильмов «Начало», «Матрица», «Пёрл Харбор» и кинотрилогии «Назад в будущее» были также сняты в этом формате для производства спецэффектов. Для этих же целей по сей день используются усовершенствованные киносъёмочные аппараты этого формата, приспособленные к современным технологиям кинопроизводства. Система автоматического повтора перемещения камеры Vista Flex, использовавшаяся при съёмках комбинированных кадров картины «Звёздный путь», также основана на аппаратуре формата «Виставижн».

Размеры и расположение кадра формата, близкие к размерам кадра малоформатной фотоплёнки, в некоторых случаях позволяют использовать для изготовления исходного негатива фотоаппараты. Так, для комбинированных съёмок некоторых сцен фильма «Индиана Джонс и храм судьбы» был использован модифицированный фотоаппарат Nikon F3 с кассетой на 16 метров 35-мм киноплёнки. Замедленная съёмка сцен в шахте на уменьшенном макете потребовала очень маленького киносъёмочного аппарата, в роли которого выступил Nikon с моторным приводом. В результате получен негатив формата «Виставижн» для дальнейшего совмещения с другим изображением.

Liberator (album)

Liberator is the ninth album by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, released in 1993. The band’s co-founder Paul Humphreys, who had left the group four years prior, co-wrote third single „Everyday“.

Liberator peaked at No. 14 on the UK Albums Chart. None of its three singles cracked the Top 20 of the UK Singles Chart, although lead single „Stand Above Me“, and follow-up „Dream of Me“ did make No. 21 and No. 24 respectively.

Andy McCluskey had originally been influenced by World War II aircraft, the B-24 Liberator in particular. The cover art originally featured a variation of the „bomber girl“ nose cone art that many of them used.

Stephen Thomas Erlewine in AllMusic remarked: „While it is far from the experimental and edgy synth-pop that earned the group rave reviews in the early ’80s, it [Liberator] is an enjoyable, lightweight collection of appealing dance-pop.“

All tracks written by Andy McCluskey, except where noted. 

„Sunday Morning“ is a fairly straightfoward cover version of the song originally recorded by The Velvet Underground. „Dream of Me (Based On „Loves Theme“)“ takes a sample from the instrumental hit, „Love’s Theme“, originally released in 1973 by The Love Unlimited Orchestra.

The song „Heaven Is“ was first performed by OMD during their showcase tour in 1984, prior to the release of the Junk Culture album the same year, along with other new songs such as „Tesla Girls“, „Never Turn Away“ and the title track. „Heaven Is“ however did not make the album and was shelved until the publication of this re-recorded version which contains some lyrical variations such as the name of the pornographic actress Christy Canyon as opposed to newsreader Selina Scott in the original version.

„Agnus Dei“ harks back to the band’s use of choral samples in some of their early work, such as on the album Architecture & Morality, although a tougher house beat is added for a more contemporary feel.

A song called „The Liberator“ had been planned to appear on the album, but was subsequently dropped.

Mixed at Amazon Studios, Liverpool tracks 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 12 mixed at Sarm West, London



Lage von Bonstorf in Niedersachsen

Bonstorf ist eine zur Gemeinde Südheide gehörende Ortschaft im nördlichen Landkreis Celle in der Lüneburger Heide.

Bonstorf liegt etwa 3 km vom Kernort Hermannsburg entfernt an der Grenze zum Landkreis Heidekreis und hat derzeit etwa 530 Einwohner. 1973 wurde Bonstorf im Zuge der Gebietsreform in Niedersachsen Teil der Einheitsgemeinde Hermannsburg. Zugehörig zu Bonstorf sind die Ortsteile Barmbostel und Hetendorf.

Östlich des Ortes befinden sich die Reste eines Hügelgräberfeldes der späten Jungsteinzeit oder der frühen Bronzezeit. Die erste schriftliche Erwähnung von Bonstorf findet sich in den Pfarrnachrichten und datiert aus dem Jahr 1450. Sie handelt davon, dass man in der „Bormwiese“, einer morastigen Quellwiese zwischen Backeberg und Bonstorf, einen toten Mann gefunden hatte, der bis zum Hals im Sumpf steckte. Man glaubte, die „Elven“, gemeint sind die zornigen und bösen Geister, hätten ihn dort hinein gezogen. Aus dem Grund ordnete Priester Magnus Lauenrod an, dass der Mann nicht auf dem Kirchhof beerdigt werden darf. Die nächste schriftliche Erwähnung datiert aus dem Jahr 1504. Das Kirchenbuch berichtet, dass im Zuge der Hildesheimer Stiftsfehde auf der „Bormwiese“ am Johannistag (24. Juni) 1519 (vier Tage vor der Schlacht bei Soltau) eine kriegerische Auseinandersetzung stattfand. Der Calenberger Ritter Hans von Ollershusen versank mit seinem Pferd im Morast und wurde durch den Ritter Hans von Spörcken gerettet.

1793 erhielt Bonstorf eine eigene Schule. Sie wurde 1973 stillgelegt. Ein Teil des Gebäudes wurde als Wohnhaus verkauft, ein anderer Teil blieb im Eigentum der Gemeinde und wird ebenfalls als Wohnung genutzt.

Am 1. Januar 1973 wurde Bonstorf in die Gemeinde Hermannsburg eingegliedert.

1995 schließt die einzige Gastwirtschaft des Ortes. Der Kaufladen im selben Gebäude hatte bereits früher seinen Handel aufgegeben.

Bonstorf liegt an dem kleinen Bach „Brunau“, der nördlich von Hermannsburg in die Örtze mündet.

Überwiegend wird in dem Ort Landwirtschaft betrieben. Das Dorfbild von Bonstorf wird von den Bauernhäusern, aber auch von einem relativ großen Autohaus geprägt.

Mit der Fusion von Hermannsburg mit der Nachbargemeinde Unterlüß zum 1. Januar 2015 kam der Ort zur Gemeinde Südheide.

Der Ortsrat von Bonstorf besteht aus fünf Ortsratsmitgliedern. Ortsbürgermeisterin ist Gisela Meyer.

Bauernhof in Bonstorf

Kriegerdenkmal 1914–1918 und 1939–1945

Sumpfwiese an der Brunau, zwischen Backeberg und Bonstorf

Denkmalgeschützter Speicher

Geschneitelte Kopfweiden an der Brunau zwischen Bonstorf und Backeberg

Gräberfeld Bonstorf

Ortsteile: Altensothrieth | Baven | Beckedorf | Bonstorf mit Barmbostel und Hetendorf | Hermannsburg | Lutterloh | Neu-Lutterloh | Neuschröderhof | Oldendorf | Schröderhof | Theerhof | Unterlüß | Weesen

Forsthäuser: Lünsholz | Neuensothrieth | Schafstall | Siedenholz

Obere Treenelandschaft

Die Obere Treenelandschaft ist ein Landschaftsraum in Schleswig, der sich räumlich am Quellgebiet der Treene im Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg orientiert.

1998 wurde ein Naturschutzverein „Obere Treenelandschaft“ gegründet, der ab dem Jahr 2000 Träger des 2012 abgeschlossenen Naturschutzgroßprojekts „Obere Treenelandschaft“ war und sich weiter um Folgeprojekte und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit kümmert. Derzeit (Stand März 2015) ist die Ausweisung eines Naturschutzgebiets „Obere Treenelandschaft“ geplant.

Zum Gebiet des Naturschutzgroßprojektes Obere Treenelandschaft gehören Flächen in den Gemeinden Sankelmark, Freienwill, Oeversee, Großsolt, Tarp und Sieverstedt (mit dem Ortsteil Süderschmedebyfeld). Das Kerngebiet hat eine Nord-Süd-Ausdehnung von rund sieben Kilometern und eine Ost-West-Ausdehnung von 5 Kilometern und umfasst eine Fläche von über 2100 Hektar.

Eine Besonderheit des Gebietes ist sein kleinräumiger Wechsel zwischen sehr unterschiedlichen Landschaftstypen. Auf die Grund-, End- und Stauchmoränen Angelns folgen die Sander Luusangelns. Das Urstromtal der Treene schneidet im Treenetal bei Tarp tief in die umgebende Landschaft ein, um schließlich bei Tüdal (Gemeinde Eggebek) schon fast den landschaftlichen Übergang von der schleswigschen Geest zur Marschlandschaft der mittleren Treene zu erreichen. Trockene Lebensräume (wie z. B. die Düne am Treßsee) liegen eng mit Feuchtgebieten zusammen und bieten einer vielfältigen Tierwelt eine Heimat.

Die Durchführung und Förderung des Naturschutzgroßprojekts war ursprünglich auf zehn Jahre angelegt und lief schließlich von 2000 bis 2012. Das Projekt wurde zu 75 % vom Bund, zu 15 % vom Land Schleswig-Holstein und zu 10 % von der privaten Kurt und Erika Schrobach-Stiftung finanziert. Insgesamt standen 10 Mio. Euro zur Verfügung, die u.a. für die Flächensicherung durch Ankauf und Pacht, Biotoppflegemaßnahmen, wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen und für die Projektverwaltung eingesetzt wurden.

Verwaltet wurde das Projekt vom Naturschutzverein Obere Treenelandschaft. Dessen Vorstandsmitglieder kommen aus den beteiligten Gemeinden und aus den Bereichen Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft/Eigentum und Tourismus. Der Verein hat insgesamt etwa 120 Mitglieder (Stand 2003).

Das Naturschutzgroßprojekt mündete in die Planung eines Naturschutzgebiets „Obere Treenelandschaft“, in das u.a. die beiden bestehenden NSG Fröruper Berge und Am Treßsee einbezogen werden sollen. Das Ausweisungsverfahren hierfür ist noch nicht abgeschlossen (Stand März 2015).

Commissioners of Woods and Forests

The Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues were established in the United Kingdom in 1810 by merging the former offices of Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases and Surveyor General of the Land Revenues of the Crown into a three-man commission. The name of the commission was changed in 1832 to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings. In 1851, under the Acts of Parliament 14 and 15 Vict Cap 42, it was replaced by the Commissioners of Works and Public Buildings and the Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues dividing between them the public and the commercial functions of the Crown lands.

The hereditary land revenues of the Crown in Scotland, formerly under the management of the Barons of the Exchequer, were transferred to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings and their Successors under the Crown Lands (Scotland) Acts of 1832, 1833 and 1835.

First Commissioners are followed by the names of their co-commissioners


Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM8 gene. The TRPM8 channel is the primary molecular transducer of cold somatosensation in humans.

The TRPM8 channel is a homotetramer, composed of four identical subunits with a transmembrane domain with six helices (S1-S6). The first four, S1-S4, act as the voltage sensor and allow binding of menthol, icilin and similar channel agonists. S5 and S6 and a connecting loop, also part of the structure, make up the pore, a non-selective cation channel which consists of a highly conserved hydrophobic region, A range of diverse components are required for the high level of specificity in responding to result in ion flow to cold and menthol stimuli.

TRPM8 is an ion channel, upon activation it allows the entry of Na+ (sodium) and Ca2+ (calcium) ions to the cell that leads to depolarization and the generation of an action potential. The signal is conducted from primary afferents (type C- and A-delta) eventually leading to the sensation of cold and cold pain.

The TRPM8 protein is expressed in sensory neurons, and it is activated by cold temperatures and cooling agents, such as menthol and icilin whereas WS-12 and CPS-369 are the most selective agonist of TRPM8.

TRPM8 is also expressed in the prostate, lungs, and bladder where its function is not well understood.

The transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily, which includes the menthol (TRPM8) and capsaicin receptors (TRPV1), serve a variety of functions in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the peripheral nervous system, TRPs respond to stimuli from temperature, pressure, inflammatory agents, and receptor activation. Central nervous system roles of the receptors include neurite outgrowth, receptor signaling, and excitoxic cell death resulting from noxious stimuli.

McKemy et al., 2002 provided some of the first evidence for existence of a cold-activated receptor throughout the mammalian somatosensory system. Using calcium imaging and patch clamp based approaches, they showed a response in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that exposure to cold, 20 °C or cooler, lead to a response in calcium influx. This receptor was shown to respond to both cold temperatures, menthol, and similar now-known agonists of the TRPM8 receptor. It works in conjunction with the TRPV1 receptor to maintain a feasible threshold temperature range in which our cells are comfortable and our perception of these stimuli occurs at the spinal cord and brain, which integrate signals from different fibers of varying sensitivity to temperature. Application of menthol to skin or mucus membranes results directly in membrane depolarization, followed by calcium influx via Voltage-dependent calcium channels, providing evidence for the role of TRPM8 and other TRP receptors to mediate our sensory interaction with the environment in response to cold in the same way as in response to menthol.

In contrast to the TRPV1 (capsaicin) receptor, which is potentiated by low pH, acidic conditions were shown to inhibit the TRPM8 Ca2+ response to menthol and icilin (an agonist of the menthol receptor). It is hypothesized the TRPV1 and TRPM8 receptors act together in response to inflammatory conditions: TRPV1, by proton action, increases the burning sensation of pain, while the acidity inhibits TRPM8 to block the more pleasant sensation of coolness in more dire instances of pain.

Numerous studies have been published investigating the effect of L-menthol application as a model for TRPM8-sensitization. The primary consensus finding is that TRPM8 sensitization increases the sensation of cold pain, also known as cold hyperalgesia. An experiment was done in a double-blind two-way crossover study by applying 40% L-menthol to the forearm, using ethanol as a control. Activation of the TRPM8-receptor channel (the primary menthol receptor channel) resulted in increased sensitization to the menthol stimulus. To investigate the mechanisms of this sensitization, Wasner et al., 2004, performed A fiber conduction blockade of the superficial radial nerve in another group of subjects. This ended up reducing the menthol-induced sensation of cold and hyperalgesia because blocking A fiber conduction resulted in inhibition of a class of Group C nerve fiber nociceptors needed to transduce the sensation of pain. They concluded menthol sensitizes cold-sensitive peripheral C nociceptors and activates cold-specific A delta fibers.

As is common in response to many other sensory stimuli, much experimental evidence exists for the desensitization of human response of TRPM8 receptors to menthol. Testing involving administration of menthol and nicotine-containing cigarettes non-smokers, which induced what they classified as an irritant response, after initial sensitization, showed a declining response in subjects over time, lending itself to the incidence of desensitization. Ethanol, with similar irritant and desensitization properties, was used as a control for nicotine, to distinguish it from menthol-induced response. The menthol receptor was seen to sensitize or desensitize based on cellular conditions, and menthol produces increased activity in Ca2+-voltage gated channels that is not seen in ethanol, cyclohexanol and other irritant controls, suggestive of a specific molecular receptor. Dessirier et al., 2001, also claim the cross-desensitization of menthol receptors can occur by unknown molecular mechanisms, though they hypothesize the importance of Ca2+ in reducing cell excitability in a way similar to that in the capsaicin receptor.

Mutagenesis of protein kinase C phoshorylation sites in TRPM8 (wild type serines and threonines replaced by alanine in mutants) reduces the desensitizing response.

Cliff et al., 1994, performed a study to discover more about the properties of the menthol receptor and whether menthol had the ability to cross-desensitize with other chemical irritant receptors. Capsaicin was known to cross-desensitize with other irritant agonists, where the same information was not known about menthol. The study involved subjects swishing either menthol or capsaicin for an extended time at regular intevals. There were three significant conclusions about cross-desensitizing: 1) Both chemicals self-desensitize, 2) menthol receptors can desensitize in response to capsaicin, and, most novelly, 3) capsaicin receptors are desensitized in response to menthol.

In a search for compounds that activated the TRPM8 cold receptor, compounds that produce a cooling-sensation were sought out from the fragrance industries. Of 70 relevant compounds, the following 10 produced the associated [Ca2+]-increase response in mTRPM8-transfected HEK293 cells used to identify agonists. Experimentally identified and commonly utilized agonists of the menthol receptor include linalool, geraniol, hydroxy-citronellal, WS-3, WS-23, Frescolat MGA, Frescolat ML, PMD 38, Coolact P, and Cooling Agent 10.

BCTC, thio-BCTC, and capsazepine were identified as antagonists of the TRPM8 receptor. These antagonists physically block the receptor for cold and menthol, by binding to the S1-S4 voltage-sensing domain, preventing response.

Cold-patches have traditionally been used to induce analgesia or relief in pain which is caused as result of traumatic injuries. The underlying mechanism of cold-induced analgesia remained obscure until the discovery of TRPM8.

One research group has reported that TRPM8 is activated by chemical cooling agents (such as menthol) or when ambient temperatures drop below approximately 26 °C, suggesting that it mediates the detection of cold thermal stimuli by primary afferent sensory neurons of afferent nerve fibers.

Three independent research groups have reported that mice lacking functional TRPM8 gene expression are severely impaired in their ability to detect cold temperatures. Remarkably, these animals are deficient in many diverse aspects of cold signaling, including cool and noxious cold perception, injury-evoked sensitization to cold, and cooling-induced analgesia. These animals provide a great deal of insight into the molecular signaling pathways that participate in the detection of cold and painful stimuli. Many research groups, both in universities and pharmaceutical companies, are now actively involved in looking for selective TRPM8 ligands to be used as new generation of neuropathic analgesic drugs.

Interestingly, low concentrations of TRPM8 agonists such as menthol (or icilin) found to be antihyperalgesic in certain conditions, whereas high concentrations of menthol caused both cold and mechanical hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.

TRPM8 knockout mice not only indicated that TRPM8 is required for cold sensation but also revealed that TRPM8 mediates both cold and mechanical allodynia in rodent models of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, recently it was shown that TRPM8 antagonists are effective in reversing established pain in neuropathic and visceral pain models.

TRPM8 upregulation in bladder tissues correlates with pain in patients with painful bladder syndromes. Furthermore, TRPM8 is upregulated in many prostate cancer cell lines and Dendreon/Genentech are pursuing an agonist approach to induce apoptosis and prostate cancer cell death.

TRPM8 channels may be a target for treating prostate cancer. TRPM8 is an androgen dependent Ca2+ channel necessary for prostate cancer cells to survive and grow. Immunfluorescence showed expression of the TRPM8 protein in the ER and plasma membrane of the androgen-responsive LNCaP cell line. TRPM8 was expressed in androgen-insensitive cells, but it was not shown to be needed for their survival. By knockout of TRPM8 with siRNAs targeting TRPM8 mRNAs, the necessity of the TRPM8 receptor was shown in the androgen-dependent cancer cells. This has useful implications in terms of gene therapy, as there are so few treatment options for men with prostate cancer. As an androgen-regulated protein whose function is lost as cancer develops in cells, the TRPM8 protein seems to be especially critical in regulating calcium levels and has recently been proposed as the focus of new drugs used to treat prostate cancer.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

NOW Foods

NOW Foods is a natural health company headquartered in Bloomingdale, Illinois which manufactures and distributes dietary supplements, natural foods, sports nutrition, and personal care products. The company was founded in 1968 by Elwood Richard and has grown to employ over 1100 worldwide.

The company started in 1948 when Paul Richard bought Fearn Soya Foods from Dr. Charles E. Fearn for $500. Under the supervision and ownership of Paul Richard and his sons Elwood, Lou and Bill, the company grew drastically and in 1962, saw its first retail store opening in Elmhurst, Illinois. In 1968, under Elwood Richard, NOW Foods (Natural, Organic, and Wholesome) was first used as a private label within Fearn.

Legal troubles in the early 1970s forced the Richards to change the name of their retail stores in 1971 to the Fruitful Yield, which is still used today. The headquarters and main production facilities moved to Villa Park, Illinois in 1978, to Glendale Heights, Illinois in 1988 and finally to its current location in Bloomingdale, Illinois in 1998.

A second, 130,000 sq. foot distribution plant was opened in Sparks, Nevada in 2003 and expanded to include manufacturing in 2012.

To increase their personal care products NOW Foods acquired Burnham Labs in 2005, a manufacturer based in Niles, Illinois.

In 2006 NOW Foods became the first for-profit business in DuPage County to receive Earth Flag Environmental Award. This award was in recognition of the company’s efforts in recycling, waste reduction, energy conservation, and education about the sustainability of the environment, including the company’s cleanup days in the DuPage County Forest Preserve.

SPINS, a market research company reported for the 52 weeks ending July 12, 2008 that NOW Foods was the number one selling Nutritional Supplement Brand in the natural supermarket channel.

NOW Foods earned a GMP A-rating certification in 2000 from the FDA for its 250,000 sq. foot facility in Bloomingdale. In 2012 the company received a „no observations“ on FDA cGMP inspection. Other certifications include a GMP certification from the Natural Products Association and organic certifications from Quality Assurance International and NSF International.

NOW Foods offers over 1,400 products including amino acids, antioxidants, aromatherapy products, bee products, body products, nutritional yeast, cholesterol/cardiovascular support products, cognitive brain products, diet/weight management products, digestive support products, face products, fiber supplements, glucose management products, hair care products, herbal teas, herbs and mushrooms, immune system support products, joint pain and mobility products, joint structural support products, mental fitness/mood support products, nutritional oils, sports nutrition products, and vitamins. The company sells its products through health foods stores and retailers in the United States and internationally in over 50 countries.

One of NOW’s most popular product is their BetterStevia brand of natural sweetener made with pure stevia. Unlike many health food companies, NOW Foods produces a whole leaf, full-spectrum extraction of stevia which preserves the many phytonutrients naturally present in the plant.

NOW Foods donates to many non-profit organizations including (alphabetically):

Aeropuerto Internacional Ministro Pistarini

Aeropuerto Internacional Ministro Pistarini (IATA:EZE, ICAO:SAEZ), beter bekend als Luchthaven Ezeiza vanwege zijn ligging in de gemeente Ezeiza in Groot-Buenos_Aires, is een internationale luchthaven op 22 km ten zuidwesten van Buenos Aires, de hoofdstad van Argentinië. De luchthaven is ’s lands drukste internationale luchthaven in termen van afgehandelde passagiers (85% van het internationale verkeer) en is een hub voor internationale vluchten van Aerolíneas Argentinas en LAN Argentina. De luchthaven wordt sinds 1998 uitgebaat door Aeropuertos Argentina 2000 S.A..

De luchthaven werd in 2007 verkozen tot „beste luchthaven in de regio“ bij een verkiezing van Skytrax. Hij zakte naar de derde plaats in 2010, na Santiago en Lima.

KLM vliegt sinds oktober 2011, na een afwezigheid van 10 jaar, weer rechtstreeks vanuit Amsterdam op Buenos Aires. Vanuit Brussel zijn er geen rechtstreekse vluchten.

De luchthaven werd vernoemd naar de generaal en politicus Juan Pistarini (1882–1956), die als minister van openbare werken op 22 december 1945 de eerste steen plaatste. De luchthaven is ontworpen en gebouwd door Argentijnse technici, en werd tussen 1945 en 1949 gebouwd. De bouw van de luchthaven was een van de grote projecten in het vijfjarenplan in de eerste ambtstermijn van Juan Perón. Bij zijn opening was de luchthaven de op twee na grootste luchthaven ter wereld.

De eerste civiele vlucht vond plaats met een Avro Lancastrian van BSAA vanaf London Heathrow Airport in 1946.[bron?] Een diagram uit 1949 toont drie elkaar kruisende landingsbanen met een onderlinge hoekverhouding van 60 graden: baan 10/28, baan 4/22 en baan 16/34. In 1997 werd baan 05/23 gesloten, sindsdien is deze in gebruik als parkeerplek voor grote vliegtuigen (zoals de Airbus A340 of Boeing 747).

Het Bloedbad van Ezeiza vond plaats in de omgeving van de luchthaven in 1973.

De luchthaven bevindt zich op ongeveer 22 km van het centrum van Buenos Aires. Over de weg is de luchthaven toegankelijk via de Riccheri-snelweg. Er is geen directe spoorverbinding tussen de luchthaven en de stad; alhoewel zich een station bevindt in de naburige plaats Ezeiza, met een busverbinding naar de luchthaven, is deze route ongebruikelijk voor passagiers. Reizen tussen de luchthaven en Buenos Aires kan met de taxi, limousine (Argentijns Spaans: remise) of een van de shuttlebussen die een non-stop dienst tussen de luchthaven en verschillende punten in Buenos Aires bieden. Bussen van het openbaar vervoer rijden naar verschillende bestemmingen in de stad en zijn goedkoop, maar worden (vanwege het omslachtige reizen met bagage en de lange reistijd) niet door de luchthaven aangeraden. De luchthaven raadt het af om de diensten van private vervoerders te gebruiken die aankomende passagiers op de luchthaven benaderen.

Er zijn bij het Aviation Safety Network 30 ongelukken en incidenten geregistreerd met vliegtuigen van of naar de luchthaven van Buenos Aires. Hieronder staan alleen de fatale ongelukken: